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Creating Python modules is something that most Python programmers do every day. Any time you save a new Python script, you have created a new module. You can import your module into other modules. A package is a collection of modules. The things you import into your scripts from the standard library are modules or packages. In this article, we'll be looking at how to create modules and packages. We'll spend more time on packages since they're more complicated than modules.

We will begin by creating a super simple module. This module will provide us with basic arithmetic and no error handling. Here's our first example:

#---------------------------------------------------------------------- def add(x, y): """""" return x + y #---------------------------------------------------------------------- def division(x, y): """""" return x / y #---------------------------------------------------------------------- def multiply(x, y): """""" return x * y #---------------------------------------------------------------------- def subtract(x, y): """""" return x - y

This code has issues, of course. If you pass in two Integers to the **division** method, then you'll end up getting an Integer back (in Python 2.x), which may not be what you're expecting. And there's also no error checking for division by zero or mixing of strings and numbers. But that's not the point. The point is that if you save this code, you have a fully qualified module. Let's call it **arithmetic.py**. Now what can you do with a module anyway? You can import it and use any of the defined modules. And we could make it "executable" with a little spit and polish. Let's do both!

First we'll write a little script that imports our module and runs the functions in it:

import arithmetic print arithmetic.add(5, 8) print arithmetic.subtract(10, 5) print arithmetic.division(2, 7) print arithmetic.multiply(12, 6)

Now let's modify the original script so that we can run it from the command line. Here's the lame way to do it:

#---------------------------------------------------------------------- def add(x, y): """""" return x + y #---------------------------------------------------------------------- def division(x, y): """""" return x / y #---------------------------------------------------------------------- def multiply(x, y): """""" return x * y #---------------------------------------------------------------------- def subtract(x, y): """""" return x - y #---------------------------------------------------------------------- if __name__ == "__main__": import sys print sys.argv v = sys.argv[1].lower() valOne = int(sys.argv[2]) valTwo = int(sys.argv[3]) if v == "a": print add(valOne, valTwo) elif v == "d": print division(valOne, valTwo) elif v == "m": print multiply(valOne, valTwo) elif v == "s": print subtract(valOne, valTwo) else: pass

The proper way to do this script would be to use Python's optparse (pre-2.7) or argparse (2.7+) module. You can do that as an exercise yourself though. We need to move on to packages!

The main difference between a module and a package is that a package is a collection of modules AND it has an __init__.py file. Depending on the complexity of the package, it may have more than one __init__.py. Let's take a look at a simple folder structure to make this more obvious, then we'll create some simple code to follow that structure.

myMath/ __init__.py adv/ __init__.py sqrt.py fib.py add.py subtract.py multiply.py divide.py

Now we just need to replicate this structure in our own package. Let's give that a whirl! Create each of these files in a folder tree like the above. For the add, subtract, multiply and divide files, you can use the functions we created in the earlier example. For the other two, we'll use the following code.

For the fibonacci sequence, we'll use this simple code from StackOverflow:

# fib.py from math import sqrt #---------------------------------------------------------------------- def fibonacci(n): """ http://stackoverflow.com/questions/494594/how-to-write-the-fibonacci-sequence-in-python """ return ((1+sqrt(5))**n-(1-sqrt(5))**n)/(2**n*sqrt(5))

For the sqrt.py file, we'll use this code:

# sqrt.py import math #---------------------------------------------------------------------- def squareroot(n): """""" return math.sqrt(n)

You can leave both __init__.py files blank, but then you'll have to write code like **mymath.add.add(x,y)** which kind of sucks, so we'll add the following code to the outer __init__.py to make using our package easier.

# outer __init__.py from add import add from divide import division from multiply import multiply from subtract import subtract from adv.fib import fibonacci from adv.sqrt import squareroot

Now we should be able to use our module once we have it on our Python path. You can copy the folder into your Python's **site-packages** folder to do this. On Windows it's in the following general location: **C:\Python26\Lib\site-packages**. Alternatively, you can edit the path on the fly in your test code. Let's see how that's done:

import sys sys.path.append('C:\Users\mdriscoll\Documents') import mymath print mymath.add(4,5) print mymath.division(4, 2) print mymath.multiply(10, 5) print mymath.fibonacci(8) print mymath.squareroot(48)

Note that my path does NOT include the **mymath** folder. You want to append the parent folder that holds your new module, NOT the module folder itself. If you do this, then the code above should work. Congratulations! You've just created a Python package!

- Official Python documentation on modules
- Python Conquers the Universe article on packages

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